“A picture is worth a thousands words.”
The chances are very good that you have heard this English idiom at one time or another. Conveying a message, idea, or concept through the use of a visual element (e.g., video) rather than words may prove very advantageous when it comes to presenting something that may be more complex in nature or better understood by using a visual reference. But what if you are a person with a visual disability? What if that visual element and the message it conveys plays a vital role in understanding the task at hand?
“…if people who are blind are using materials that are designed to enhance and maximize learning using text and images, they may be more at a disadvantage if they are accessing only textual content.” (Evans and Graeme, 2008)
There have been numerous studies that have “shown that the multimedia presentation of learning content can lead to an enhanced learning experience and better performance” (Mayer, 2003; Mayer and Moreno, 2003; Moreno and Mayer, 1999; Najjar, 1998). Being able to provide a video component that is accessible and useful for a learner with a visual disability is the ill-structured problem that poses an issue not only within the online learning environment but the traditional classroom as well.
So the question is, how can technology and the various digital tools available be used to assist learners that are visually impaired so that he/she can successfully interact with multimedia content and participate in an enhanced learning experience in the same capacity as a learner that is fully sighted?
The Web-Based Tool
A college level course in basic Web Programming that is taught fully in an online environment can be difficult for any learner that is new to the field. Visual, as well as written references, are not only used for explanation but also to provide reference points to enhance better understanding of a specific topic.
The use of various types of assistive technologies such as screen readers and magnifiers are commonplace for learners with a visual disability. In addition, I found a free web-based accessibility tool called YouDescribe, that allows for providing audio descriptions within a YouTube video. Audio descriptions are used to provide additional narration, which is beneficial to individuals with a visual impairment. YouDescribe was developed by The Smith-Kettlewill Video Description Research and Development Center (VDRDC) which focuses on “developing 21st century tools for a new age of video accessibility”.
All of the video components that are used within my online courses are uploaded to YouTube and made available to my students, which makes YouDescribe a very useful tool for adding audio descriptions to my existing video content. YouDescribe doesn’t modify or redistribute the original YouTube video, everything is kept in tact allowing two separate versions of the video that the learner can access depending on their individual needs and/or preferences.
YouDescribe provides easy step-by-step instructions on Recording within their website along with a Google-based support forum and FAQs for both “Viewers” and “Describers”. There aren’t any special software requirements for the “describer” or the “viewer” other than access to a web browser. YouDescribe accesses the microphone on your computer, which is used to record the audio descriptions that accompany the YouTube video.
The following are enhancements that I would like to see become available within YouDescribe that would provide additional options both for the “describer” and “viewer”:
- The ability to set the listing option for the video (public, unlisted, or private) similar to what you can do within YouTube
- The ability to create an audio description for a single image (currently you can only add audio descriptions to videos)
How YouDescribe Enables a Learner
YouDescribe assists learners with a visual disability by providing additional instruction and narrative to a video component. This additional information can be used to enhance other assistive technologies already in use. Using a tool such as YouDescribe levels the playing field for learners that are visually impaired and sighted. Both learner groups have access to the same information and in some cases; the learner who has a visual disability is supplied with additional information simply because of the nature of the tool.
“In a practical sense, instructors and designers of learning resources must continue to think carefully about the technical accessibility of their materials and constantly seek ways of refining and updating them to optimize the learning experience of users who are blind.” (Evans and Graeme, 2008)
See YouDescribe in action and how it can be useful in helping to support learners that are visually impaired.
The completed YouDescribe video referenced within the YouTube video above is located here.
Agrelo, D. (2015, May). [Technology, Keyboard, Computing, Peripheral] [Photograph]. Retrieved from https://pixabay.com/en/technology-keyboard-computing-785742/
Audio Description. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved September 2, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Audio_description
Evans, S., & Douglas, G. (2008). E-learning and blindness: A comparative study of the quality of an E-learning experience. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 102(2), 77-88. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.msu.edu.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/docview/222044681?accountid=12598
Mayer, R. (2003). The promise of multimedia learning: Using the same instructional design methods across different media. Learning and Instruction, 13, 125-139.
Mayer, R. G., & Moreno, R. (2003). Nine ways to reduce cognitive load in multimedia learning, Educational Psychologist, 38, 43-52.
Moreno, R., & Mayer, R. G. (1999). Cognitive principles of multimedia learning: The role of modality and contiguity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 358-368.
Najjar, L. J. (1998). Principles of educational multimedia user interface design. Human Factors, 40, 311-323.